“Behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to render to every man according to what he has done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.The Spirit and the bride say, ‘Come.’ And let the one who hears say, ‘Come.’ And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who wishes take the water of life without cost.”

George Gates: Women Are Permitted to Minister

                               1 Timothy 2:12-14                   

Teacher George A. Gates Jr. 

Heavens Gates Apostolic Ministries (HGAM)  

From the book written by author Gates, “Women Are Called to Minister and Preach.” 

Library of Congress Control Number 2019914394 

The New King James Version of 1 Timothy 2:12 reads, And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence,” (New King James Version.)  In 1 Timothy 2:12, we have the hotly debated passage about exercising authority or teaching a man of whether women can be ministers or not when men are               GEORGE A. GATES JR present in a church service. In verses 13-15, I continue with the series explaining in-depth what these passages mean. Some Christian theologians and leaders believe women have little or no business at all leading, speaking, preaching, and teaching in the church. However, there are different degrees of speaking and leading. For example, some people believe women can speak and lead women but not lead men.  

Leading as is taught in this section can include a female called to the five-fold ministry, as is mentioned in Ephesians 4:11. I will also note that some people base their belief on male-only leadership or ministry based on the following verse, “Therefore he says, 

“When he (Jesus) ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men,” (Ephesians 4:8.) The word men is an incorrect translation from the Greek text. The common word for men or husbands in the New Testament Greek is andres, άνδρες. For 

example, in Ephesians, 5:28 husbands or άνδρες, are told to “love their wives as Christ loved the Church.”  Άνδρες is not used in Ephesians 4:8. i The Greek word for men in Ephesians 4:8 is the word we use for humanity, in 

English, anthropois, áνθρωποις. Once we understand these verses in 1 Timothy chapter two, then passages such as 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 make 

more sense. I also weave into the woman series articles about Junia in Romans 16:7, Phoebe in Romans 16:1, the four daughters of Philip who prophesied. According to church history, the four daughters of Philip were prophetesses. ii The issue of the four daughters is discussed in detail in the section entitled, The Case of Phillips Four Prophetess Daughters. A prophet or prophetess is a leadership position under the authority of Jesus Christ. iii In verse, nine is where Paul first slides in the woman issue mentioning dress code. In this book on page 60 I have referenced an article entitled, You Were What You Wore in Roman Law: Deciphering the Dress Codes of 1 Timothy 

2:9-15,  by Bruce Winter. In Winter’s article we can see the provocative ways women dressed within the culture of Ephesus. In 1 Timothy 2:9-10, we can read issues about how women were supposed to dress. ” 9 In like manner also, that the women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with propriety and moderation. Not with braided hair or gold or pearls or costly clothing, 10 but, which is proper for women professing godliness, with good works.” 

Once we understand how women of Ephesus dressed around 48 A.D., we can determine why Paul was concerned with how women dressed. The next part in verse 12 is where the controversy begins and where we get into the details of our study. Of all the translations of the Bible of this passage, all of them except for one translates the passage as a woman, (singular in the Greek.) The Williams translations states, 2:12 as a “married woman.” Therefore, I am also adding Williams Translation as a correct perspective on understanding the nature of the passage. The Williams Translation is a translation written by a Greek scholar by the name of Charles B. Williams, (1869-1952.) Williams was a renowned Greek scholar, professor, writer, pastor, and preacher. Williams specialized in the original languages of the Bible, Hebrew, and Greek, and graduated with a B.D. 

degree in 1900.  His thesis was entitled Evolution and God: The History of the Baptists in North Carolina, (Sprawls, 2007.) The NKJV writes the passage as, 

11Let a woman learn in silence with all submission. 12 And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence. 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve. 14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. 15 Nevertheless she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control,” (1 Timothy 2:11-15.)  

The Williams Translation writes the passage as, 

“A married woman must learn in quiet and in perfect submission. I do not permit a married woman to practice teaching or domineering over a husband; she must keep quiet. For Adam was formed first, and then Eve; 

            LOCATION OF ANCIENT EPHESUS and it was not Adam who 

was deceived, but it was the  woman who  was utterly deceived and fell into transgression. But women will be saved through motherhood if they continue to live in faith, love, and purity blended with good sense.”  

The Greek word for “quiet” is aysukia, ηςυχια, is the same word used for silence in verse 11. By reading these two translations, we understand a significant difference in that the NKJV seems to address women in general while the Williams translation translates the same Greek word as a married woman. Again, we must investigate in detail regarding issues of the usage of the wording of the Greek language, the culture, the historical setting, and the audience. We deal first with the historical and religious culture of Ephesus. Also, according to Graves (1968, p. 121,) one of the attributes of Diana was that she “Presided over childbirth jointly with 

Lithia.” iv  

Women associated with this goddess were promised protection during childbirth and 

nourishment for the young baby. The Encyclopedia Mythica, mentions this issue of protection and nourishment. According to 

Lindemans, (1968), “Diana was originally a goddess of fertility and, just as Bona Dea, she was worshipped mainly by women as the 

giver of fertility and easy births.” v The issue of childbirth is one of the problems what Paul is writing about regarding Diana offering protection.  

                THE MANY BREASTED DIANA 

In another Greek legend, we read about the writings of Strabo. Strabo, (63 BC) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor. Writing in the same century as Paul, Strabo describes why Artemis had so much compassion for married women during childbirth. In his Geography, he refers to,   

“Ortygia (a grove adjacent to Ephesus) as both the name of a midwife and the name of the place where Leto gave birth to Artemis and then suffered on the brink of death giving birth to her twin brother after nine days of labor: ‘Then comes the harbor called Panormus, with a temple of the Ephesian Artemis; and then the city Ephesus. On the same coast, slightly above the sea, is also Ortygia, which is a magnificent grove of all kinds of trees, of the cypress most of all. It is traversed by the Cenchrius River, where Leto is said to have bathed herself after her travail. For here is the mythical scene of the birth, and of the nurse Ortygia, and of the holy place where the birth took place, and of the olive tree nearby, where the goddess is said first to have taken a rest after she was relieved from her travail. As the legend goes, Artemis felt how great her mother’s pain was in childbirth and decided to remain a virgin herself and compassionately care for women in labor as one of her divine duties,” (Strabo, Geography, 14.20.)  

A question to ask would logically be, “Would Paul tell single women to have children so they could be protected through childbirth?” If Professor Williams is correct, in which he is correct, Paul had to deal with a specific married woman in the Christian church. This is all explained later in the book. 

She was negatively influenced by the false religious rituals of Diana/Artemis and bringing the wrong concept of protection during childbirth from a false myth, among other tales, into the church.  

Paul stated in chapter 1, verses 3-7 that,  

3 As I urged you when I went into Macedonia to remain in Ephesus that you may charge some that they teach no other doctrine, 4 nor give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which cause disputes rather than godly edification which is in faith. 5 Now the purpose of the commandment is love from a pure heart, from a good conscience, and from sincere faith, 6 from which some, having strayed, have turned aside to idle talk, 7 desiring to be teachers of the law, understanding neither what they say nor the things which they affirm.”  

Pricisely what those fables are we are not sure. In the book of Revelation 2:2-7 we read these comments from Jesus to the Church at Ephesus. 

2 I know your works, your labor, your patience, and that you cannot bear those who are evil. And you have tested those who say they are apostles and are not, and have found them liars; 3 and you have persevered and have patience, and have labored for my name’s sake and have not become weary.  

4 Nevertheless I have this against you, that you have left your first love. 5 Remember therefore from where you have fallen; repent and do the first works, or else I will come to you quickly and remove your lampstand from its place unless you repent. 6 But this you have, that you hate the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. 7 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give to eat from the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God.” 

From reading this passage, we can ascertain a few issues that Jesus wants to correct. One of those issues is the deeds and doctrine of the Nicolaitans. Nicolaitans in the Greek means, “to conquer the laity.” Ironically, a word we are going to study is authenteo, aύθεντέω. Authenteo is the Greek word for “authority” in chapter 2 verse 12. Authenteo has as one of its definitions to dominate a similar thought to Nicolaitans. One of the keys to understanding this passage is a correct understanding of the two words in the Greek for authority. In verse 15, Paul states that, “She, (the married woman), shall be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control.” Paul is saying that the married woman or wife finds her protection in the confines of the church in the Lord’s presence with the attributes he describes of faith, love, holiness, and self-control. Diana’s influence in the world and relation to Christianity was huge. In reading the following sentences, we can understand how strong a force this malevolent spirit must have been in Paul’s days. Walker, (1983, p 233) writes,  

“Diana’s cult was so widespread in the pagan world that early Christians viewed her as their major rival, which is why she became ‘Queen of the Witches.’  

In the 5th century A.D., the Gauls regarded her as their supreme deity. Christians spoke slightingly of their pagan custom of adoring the spirit of Dianna in a cut branch or a log of wood. Some Christians even remembered that Diana was once the triple deity who ruled the world. A 14th-century poem attributed to the Bishop of Meaux said Diana was an old name for the Trinity. In the 14th-century a bishop found the monks of Frithelstock Priory worshipping a statue of The Unchaste Diana at an altar in the woods, and made them destroy it. Dianic rites were celebrated even in the church.” A minister wrote against the traditional parade of stag’s head into St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, ‘Bringing in procession into the church the head of a deer, fixed on the top of a long spear or pole, with the whole company blowing Hunters Horns in a sort of hideous manner; and with this rude pomp they go up to the High Altar, and offer it there. You would them all the mad Votaries of Diana.’ ” vi 

The point with writing all this information is the support of the negative impact of 

Diana/Artemis had on the church even after the destruction of the temple. According to Graves, (pg. 121) the, 

“Myth of Diana/Artemis is traced back to, a mythical people of female warriors only. Men were not allowed. When it came time to admit more women into the Amazons, the women would make temporary unions with men; however, only female infants would be kept.”  vii 

This cult was female dominated. The spirit of this female-dominated religion also spread into the church at Ephesus in the form of married women attempting to usurp authority over 

their husbands. It is the infamous passage in verse 12 that some people use to say that women can’t teach or preach in a church. Paul is writing about the behavior of wives towards their husbands and not about whether women, in general, can be pulpit 

speakers in a church. However, again, we 

                   AMAZON WOMEN WARRIORS run into translation problems from the Greek 

language in English. The New King James verse states the passage as, “And I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man, but to be in silence.” Again, we encounter the same translation issues as with 1 Corinthians 14:34-35. We have the same issue with the word gunaikes, γυναικες. Is γυναικes translated women or wives? Gunaikes, (Plural) and gunaiki (sing) translates as a married woman in both passages of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 and 1 Timothy 2:12. Next, is the entire passage of 1 Timothy 2:11-15 in the Greek text.  

11γυνε          εν         υσουχια         μανθανετω          πασε        υποταγε woman         in        quietness     to-be-learning          all         subjection 

n.sing.       prep.        noun          infinitive verb          adv.       n. (noun) 

12γυναικι      δε       διδάσκειν       οὐκ           επιτρεπω             οὐδὲ  woman       yet       to-teach        not        I-am-permitting      not yet 

n.sing.       conj.  infinitive verb   part.        infinitive verb          adv. 

     αυθεντειn        ανδρος       ἀλλ       εἶναι     εν        ηςυχια to-self-dominate     man         but       to-be     in      quietness    infinitive verb      n. sing       conj.     verb    prep.      n.  


ay-su-kios, ήσύχιος, the same word in the Greek used in verse 11 for silence or quietness. 

Wife or Woman         

Since we now know gune, γυνε, for woman, is singular in both examples in these two verses, andros, ανδρος, man, is singular also. The question to ask is the exegesis of this passage speaking of a woman or a wife. Williams thinks it is wife and I agree. My thoughts are why God would tell single women or a woman who is not married, that their lives would be preserved in childbearing? The total context of verses 11-15 is a married woman. Next, we will study about Paul not permitting this woman not to teach. 

I do not permit (δέ  έπιτρέπω, permit [epitrepo]  ού) not 

Paul uses the epitrepo by writing “I do not permit. Some people falsely understand verse 12 by saying that Paul “commands” that women can’t be in ministries such as leadership, teaching, or preaching positions. However, Paul does not use the Greek word for commandment, paraggello, παραγγέλλω, to prevent women from ministering. Paul used the 

Greek word epitrepō, permit. We will study epitrepō in detail in this section. In three places in both 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy Paul issues commands, παραγγέλλω. Those passages include 1 Timothy 1:5 as commandment, 4:11, and 6:14 as a command. The same Greek word for a command is used in other passages in 1 Timothy 1:3, 5:7, 6:13, and 6:17 as charge. The phrase is “I do not permit…” and not “I command not.” See the difference? According to A.C. Perriman, 

“Epitrepō is always without exception, related to a specific and limited set of circumstances. So, Paul’s prohibition of women teaching is only meant for that time and place. It is in every case related to a specific and limited set of circumstances, even the permission which comes closest to being the imposition of a theological principle, is implicitly restricted to the period of the law, and authority is to divorce granted by Moses Matthew 19:8; Mark 10:12, which comes closest to being the imposition of a theological principle, is implicitly restricted to the period of the law, and authority is clearly located in an individual not in a body of absolute truth.” viii  As the second testimony of epitrepo as a temporary injunction Parales states, 

“… the verb ‘to permit’ epitrepo, present active indicative is written in a tense that implies present continuous action. To translate more accurately, the verse could say, 

‘I am not currently permitting a woman to teach …’ The verb is not written in the command mode.  The command mode [imperative] appeared in the previous verse, where Paul was telling women he wanted them to learn. But in verse 12, he was telling them he was not permitting them to teach at that time, which implies that those who learned might eventually teach – just not right now,’ (Parales, pg. 106.) 

The text should be translated, “I am not permitting (present tense: “currently”) women to teach in a way as to domineer.” Therefore, I do not permit relates to a temporary situation that was taking place at Ephesus.  

Authenteo (Greek: αὐθεντέω) 

One of the keywords in this passage, as written in English, is the word “authority.” This word alone is the cause of much of the controversy whether women can teach or be leaders such as pastors. The incorrect interpretation has kept many women with ministry calls out of the pulpit or ministering to other people besides in churches. Authenteo, has two problems with its meaning. The first is attempting to define the word lexicologically, and two, examining the word according to the literary character of the entire passage.  

Authenteo only appears once in the New Testament, and scholars have been compelled to study Greek literature proximal to the time Paul lived to understand the word entirely. Authenteo has been debated for years, but only until the last few years has authenteo been understood without much question. However, one definition that most scholars, theologians and those who have studied this in-depth, can agree on, is that at its root word, authentein is based on “self” motivation. In simple terms, authenteo is “self” that rises, and on many occasions in Greek literature “self” rises in a very violent manner. 

Another way of defining authentein as “initiating or perpetrating” an action on her own. However, the word for authority used most often, over 100 times in various grammatical terms, in the New Testament is exousia, εχουσια. I will explain exousia in more precise terms later in this article. Most importantly, to equate authentein-authority in 1 Timothy 2:12 with typical exousia-authority is inaccurate and not even close to being the same. This unequal equation must be understood and remembered.  

Lexical Examination of Authentein(eo) 

Authority in verse 12 is not a good translation of the Greek word authentein, αυθεντειn. Authentein is a “Hapax Legomenon.” According to Princeton University a Hapax Legomenon is, “a word which occurs only once in either the written record of a language, the works of an author, or in a single text. ix Therefore, we must be cautious about how we handle authentein.  

For example, let’s consider what Gail Wallace writes, 

“While technically incorrect, the term is also sometimes used as a word that occurs in only one an author’s works, even though it occurs more than once in that work. When a word is only used once it is difficult, if not impossible, to infer the writer’s meaning since there are no other examples of word usage to compare. The word ‘authentein’ translated as authority in 1 Timothy 2:12 is a hapax legomenon. This fact alone is sufficient to suggest caution in using this text as a foundation for church doctrine.” x 

One of the issues we must consider is that research needs to be broad and recent enough to give us a near as possible definition of authentein. For example, George Knight’s NIGTC, (New International Greek Testament Commentary,) commentary has been influential for many people. Knight concludes that the term is neutral and has ‘no inherent negative sense’ to it. Knight cites research done by L E Wilshire, using a database of Greek usage in the centuries before and after the New Testament. Unfortunately, Knight ignores 

Wilshire’s conclusion from this survey, and Wilshire goes on to comment that Knight’s findings on the word ‘need to be modified’ since the idea of murder are integral to the underlying meaning of the word. Wilshire published an article in my research also proves that authentein is indeed “negative” in every sense that I have seen the word.  

In an excellent article by Professor of New Testament David M. Scholer, Scholer quotes Wilshire by stating.  

“Thus, Wilshire’s study and summary of the evidence clearly and strongly supports the view that authentein carries almost exclusively a negative meaning in Paul’s Greek context, which would support the idea of “domineer,” “usurp,” or some such translation.  Consequent upon this, the case is very strong on the basis of this term alone that 1 Timothy 2:8-15 is addressing a particular problem of abuse in the church, undoubtedly related to the false teaching/teachers opposed in 1 and 2 Timothy.” xi 

However, as we are observing there are people who are well educated with college degrees that have not defined authentein accurately. So, how do we define authentein? Several processes of the examination are involved. 

  1. Be led by the Holy Spirit. Many times, when listening to the Lord, he has instructed me to look up a word or passage in the Greek. In doing so we should seek the thoughts of other people led by the Holy Spirit for counsel and revelation.  
  1. The researcher must discover how the word was used proximal to the era the word was used. Since this word only appears once in the New Testament, we must research lexicons, Greek literature, and the Septuagint. The Septuagint is the Greek translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew.  
  1. For example, if you want to understand Koine Greek, the language most of the New 

Testament is written in, the student must look outside of the Bible and study New Testament Greek. The student must study Greek grammar to understand how prepositions and verb tenses can affect the correct understanding of a passage.  

3) Parse the word authentein into two separate parts. Authentein can be broken down into two words, auto, and entes. Auto is the Greek word for self. In LSJ, (p. 116,) the word auto is a powerful word indicating the following meanings with various spellings with other words it is attached. When attached to other words, the ending of auto is often times truncated to “aut” by dropping the “o.” Examples are below.  

authadeia: willfulness and stubbornness authadays: self-willed and stubborn authadisma: self-willed and self-chosen authairetos: self-chosen and self-elected 

Other uses of authentein include “bluntness, having full power, murderer and absolute sway.” 

Entes is read in Strong’s concordance as “working.” In LSJ, (pg. 226,) entes is also defined as working.  

Bob Edwards performed some recent research on authentein and gleaned the following information about the word from the Wisdom of Solomon from the Septuagint

“Since Erasmus compiled his Greek/Latin Bible in the 16th century, “authentein” has been understood to mean ‘exercise authority.’ Considering this translation, it appears as though the apostle does not permit ‘a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man.’ 

Erasmus used the Latin expression ‘auctoritatum.’ He used Jerome’s Latin Vulgate of the 4th century to aid his translation. Jerome translated ‘authentein’ into the Latin 

‘dominari.’ Authentein can mean ‘to dominate’ or ‘to exercise dominion.’ ” 

Erasmus’ Bible became the basis for the first English translations of 1 Timothy 2:12 as a prohibition against female authority, (Wilshire, 2010, pp. 76-77.) If we are to understand 

Paul’s letter correctly, I believe an important question must be asked. “Do these translations of Jerome and Erasmus reflect his originally intended meaning when he wrote to Timothy prohibiting authentein?” Frankly, I do not believe so. Another place authentein is mentioned is in the Greek Septuagint. In the Septuagint, a noun form of “authentein” is used in the following passage: 

“Do you remember the ancient inhabitants of your holy land? You scorned them for their unholy ways, for their sorcery and profane rituals, their callous killing of children, their cannibal feasts on human flesh and blood.  

They practiced secret rituals in which parents slaughtered their own defenseless children,” (Wisdom of Solomon, 12:3-6, TIB.) The parents in this passage, who slaughter their children in profane rituals to false gods, are referred to as “authentas” (αὐθέντας.) For my Greek students, the example of this is next.         

“καὶ αὐθέντας γονεῖς ψυχῶν ἀβοηθήτων ἐβουλήθης ἀπολέσαι διὰ χειρῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν” 

 4) An individual word also needs to be studied and understood on its collocation; e.g., the arrangement of words in a sentence, and the sentence adjuncts. The students need to study the associated grammar, modifiers such as prepositions, prefixes, words, verb tenses, or phrases that can affect what the word concerning the entire sentence(s) meaning. An example is how teaching and authority could fit together, which we will study next. 

Teaching and Exercising Authority  

The verb to teach, didaskein, διδάσκειν, used in 1 Timothy 2:12, can link to the verb authentein in what is called a “hendiadys,”(two words joined by a conjunction to make a single point). xii Examples include, “Don’t eat and run” or “don’t text and drive.”  Therefore, a better interpretation might be “don’t teach in a domineering way.” One of the points here is how teaching is performed. 

Women Can Exousia!              

The NKJV translates the Greek word authentein in our discussion as authority as do most of the major translations. However, the most common word for authority in the New Testament is exousia. According to LSJ, (pg. 238,) Exousia means, “Power, authority to do a thing, having the official office, and magistracy.” In Matthew 7:29 the word is used as the type of authority that Jesus used, “And so it was, when Jesus had ended these sayings, that the people were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority, exousia, and not as the scribes.” In Matthew 10:1 the word is translated as power, “And when he had called his twelve disciples to him, he gave them power, exousia, over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all kinds of sickness and all kinds of disease.” In 2 Corinthians 10:8 exousia is the word for the authority given to Paul.xiii In Acts 1:7, the word used for God’s 

authority is also exousia. xiv  

         1 Timothy 2:13-14: Adam and Eve 

13For Adam was formed first, then Eve. 14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman 

being deceived, fell into transgression.” 

Most of us know Adam was created first, yet it was Eve that was deceived. Divine order in a marriage is the husband being the head of the wife as it is written in Ephesians 5:23, “For the husband is the head of the wife even as Christ is the head of the church, his body, and is himself its Savior.” Paul’s writing about Adam and Eve is not about men being the head of women in the norms of life. Paul is talking about divine order in a marriage for Adam and Eve were married. 

The False Teaching of Adam and Eve 

In Antiquities writings exist that indicate some twisted teachings about Adam and Eve. Ancient sources describing elements of this distorted version of Adam and Eve’s story appeared in later generations after the heresy had developed into full-blown Gnosticism.  If this woman was teaching her husband about a false creation order of Adam and Eve; 

e.g., Adam second and first Eve, and then we can see that she needed to learn something about the creation order. If this woman was self-appointing herself into a reversed role, she is not supposed to; then this makes sense from writings from antiquities.  

We will now study back in history and examine some of those Gnostic teachings circulating in the culture in Western Asia that includes Ephesus.  As we explore the past, we can find a good match; e.g., culture and history matching with this passage. We have sources describing elements of this distorted story of the Adam and Eve account. In 1 Timothy 4:7, Paul urges Timothy to, “Have nothing to do with godless myths and old wives’ tales; rather, train yourself to be godly.” This story appeared in writings in later generations after the heresy had developed into full-blown Gnosticism. We can read about some of these myths by reading the following articles. In these writings, we can see the reversal of divine order. In the Apocalypse of Adam (50-150 CE,)  

” Adam says ‘Eve taught me a word of knowledge of the eternal God.’ A false interpretation of Genesis chapters 1-6 in The Hypostasis of the Archons (200-300 CE,) Adam acknowledges Eve gave him life; ‘The rulers took counsel with one another and 

said, “Come, let us cause a deep sleep to fall upon Adam.” And he slept. Now the deep sleep that they caused to fall upon him, and he slept is ignorance. They opened his side like a living woman. And they built up his side with some flesh in place of her, and Adam came to be endowed only with soul. And the spirit-endowed woman came to him and spoke with him, saying, ‘Arise, Adam.’  

And when he saw her, he said, ‘It is you who have given me life; you will be called ‘mother of the living. For it is she who is my mother. It is she who is the physician, and the woman, and she who has given birth.’ ” xv 

In Asia Minor, an amulet was recovered that bears a scene of initiation of Adam from Eve like the amulet shown to the left. The amulet, pictured left, shows Eve dispensing the knowledge (gnosis) of good and evil to Adam. E. R. Goodenough identifies the amulet as gnostic because of the total lack of shame displayed, a marked contrast to Christian art that would be the opposite.  xvi Beside the tree are the Hebrew letters daleth and heth. Birger Pearson in his book, Gnosticism and Christianity suggest daleth and heth stand for life and knowledge, “the two trees of Gen. 2:9 understood gnostically as a single tree portrayed on the amulet.” Life and knowledge are the two blessings which gnostic myth maintains Eve bestowed on Adam. In addition to this amulet, we have the following writing from antiquities. A later Gnostic text, The Origin of the World (270-330) continues to celebrate female superiority as the originator of life for we read, 

“Now, Eve is the first virgin, the one who without a husband bore her first offspring. It is she who served as her own midwife. For this reason, she is held to have said; it is I who am the part of my mother; it is I who am the mother. It is I who am the wife; it is I who am the virgin. It is I who pregnant; it is I who am the midwife. It is I who am the one that comforts pains of travail.” 

Also, Paul Penley writes the following about this passage,  

“1 Timothy 2:13-14 corrects a Proto-Gnostic heresy that Eve gave Adam divine knowledge and spiritual life. The heresy combined Ancient Greek belief in the female 

origins of all life with a revised version of the 

Jewish story of creation in the Garden of Eden. 

The heresy twists the biblical story so that, “Eve gives Adam the gift of spiritual life and knowledge of God rather than just sinning by eating of the tree of knowledge.” xvii  


Once this woman learns in a quiet attitude as mentioned in verse 11, and this gnostic teaching is forever purged from her mind and soul, then the temporary injunction can be lifted as is described in my verse 12 teaching. Paul is telling this woman to be renewed in the spirit of her mind (Ephesians 4:23.) Once this woman gets the victory with the right teaching about Adam and Eve, she can minister according to her true calling. We have many examples in the New Testament, where women ministered. We have the “Lady elect” in 1 John 1:1 who had an entire epistle written to her. Phillip had four daughters who prophesied, (Acts 21:9.) Writings in Christian antiquities indicate that these four daughters were highly recognized Prophetesses in the early church. We will discuss the four daughters in the section entitled Philip’s Four Prophetess Daughters.  

Conclusion Verses 12 and 13 

The conclusion of verses 12 and 13 is that this issue with a woman was a married woman who Paul was speaking to. But since the myth of verse 13 is widespread we can assume there was more than one woman teaching this myth. These 2 passages along with verse 11 and 14-15 deal with the same issue. These passages haven nothing to do with whether women in general can be leaders, pastors, prophetesses etc. in the Church 

End Notes and References 

  1. Scripture4All: The Greek Interlinear New Testament. (2018) Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.scripture4all.org/OnlineInterlinear/NTpdf/eph4.pdf 
  1. Mowczko, Marg. (2018) Philips Prophesying Daughters. Retrieved May 2018 from https://margmowczko.com/philips-prophesying-daughters/ 
  1. Ephesians 2:20, “Having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone” Ephesians 3:1-6, “For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you Gentiles if indeed you have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which was given to me for you, how that by revelation He made known to me the mystery (as I have briefly written already. By which, when you read, you may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ), which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to His holy apostles and prophets; that the Gentiles should be fellow heirs, of the same body, and partakers of His promise in Christ through the gospel.” 

Ephesians 4:11-16, “And He Himself gave some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers, for the equipping of the saints for the work of ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ, until we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; that we should no longer be children.  

Tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in the cunning craftiness of deceitful plotting, but, speaking the truth in love, may grow up in all things into Him who is the head Christ,  from whom the whole body, joined and knit together by what every joint supplies, according to the effective working by which every part does its share, causes growth of the body for the edifying of itself in love.” 

  1. Graves, Robert. (1968). The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited 
  1. Lindeman, Micha, F. (1968). The Encyclopedia Mythica. From:  


  1. Walker, Barbara G., (1983). The Women’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, 

Harper and Row Publishers, Inc.  

  1. Graves, Robert. (1968). The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited 
  1. Perriman, A.C. (1993). What Eve Did, What Women Shouldn’t Do: The Meaning of  

Authenteō in 1 Timothy 2:12, Tyndale Bulletin 44.1 [1993] 130). 

  1. Hapag Legoenon. Retrieved May 2018 from http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney /tmve/wiki100k/docs/ Hapax_legomenon.html.) 

x Wallace, Gail. The Junia Project. (January 15, 2014). Retrieved May 2018 from http://juniaproject.com/defusing-1-timothy-212-bomb 

  1. Scholer, David (2005) God’s Word to Women. Retrieved September 3, 2019 from https://godswordtowomen.org/scholer.htm 
  1. Webster’s Dictionary. From https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hendiadys 
  1. “For even if I should boast somewhat more about our authority, which the Lord gave us for edification and not for your destruction, I shall not be ashamed.” 
  1. And He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in his own authority. 
  1. Early Christian Writings, The Apocalypse of Adam. (50-150 AD., no author) Retrieved 

October 1, 2019  from: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/apocalypseadam.html 

  1. Goodenough, E.R. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period. (1953-1968.) no page. 
  1. Penley, Paul. (7/13/2017) Women Should Not Teach Men What? 1 Timothy 2 In Context.  Retrieved March 4, 2018, from http://www.reenactingtheway.com/blog/womenshould-not-teach-what-1-Timoty-2-in-context